Postgres Get First Value Of Array

In Postgres 9. But sometimes we require the information of tuple corresponding to maximum value of other tuple indexes. Blessed Newman and four others will be canonized as saints by Pope Francis at the Vatican Oct. If you’re only counting to 10, you’ll certainly get enough results from that table: SELECT ROWNUM FROM ALL_OBJECTS WHERE ROWNUM <= 10 See also this SQLFiddle. It has more than 15 years of active development and a proven architecture that has earned it a strong reputation for reliability, data integrity, and correctness. SQL is a language where one task can be solved multiple ways with different efficiency. get_server_version [source] ¶ Return the version of the connected PostgreSQL server. s Pointer to an array of characters. of a JSON object that is stored in a PostgreSQL JSON array. Element number 1 is the first element of a PgSqlArray. $ node first. In this blog post, I want to investigate these functions and implement a simple use case. Searches a range or an array, and returns an item corresponding to the first match it finds. It works by generating abbreviated keys for values that are representative of them for purposes of sorting, but which fit nicely into the pointer-sized value (called a “datum”) in memory that Postgres uses for sorting. PostgreSQL Numeric Functions − Complete list of PostgreSQL functions required to manipulate numbers in SQL. A database index works like the index section of a printed book: by looking in the index section, it is much faster to identify the page(s) which contain the term we are interested in. You can easily get the value of an array using array. In this post I will explain some of the more interesting things that can be done with JSON fields on PostgreSQL. The value can either be a string, if the method does not take any arguments, or an array, where the first element is the name of the method, and consecutive elements are arguments to that method. CWIEME Americas did not disappoint in this regard. Arrays are only casted to list when their oid is known, and an array typecaster is registered for them. PS C:\> get-date @params. This method returns the index of the first element of the specified dimension in the array. PostgreSQL Data Types. The length method determines the size of the array. Dim arr(5) As Integer arr(0) = 1 arr(1) = 3 arr(2) = 5 arr(3) = 7 arr(4) = 8 arr(5) = 5 Dim index1 As Integer = Array. conf, the value of max_fsm_pages and max_fsm_relations. Returns the indices that would sort an array. Rather than creating a separate variable for each value, Array variable lets the programer to use a single variable to store multiple values at the same time. It treats each array as a "vector" and handles each element independently. Trying to get the first letter of each word, except a few stopwords. Available since PostgreSQL-9. Then, for each row in table T1 that does not satisfy the join condition with any row in table T2, a joined row is added with null values in columns of T2. 2) Using PostgreSQL LAST_VALUE() over a partition example. There's a number of datatypes available in PostgreSQL. Previous: Write a JavaScript function to clone an array. The following example uses the LAST_VALUE() function to return all products together with the most expensive product per product group:. PostgreSQL - Data Type - In this chapter, we will discuss about the data types used in PostgreSQL. There is only a single recognized element for the $args array, called 'fields' and by default is set to 'all'. Merlin Moncure Yeah -- to get to the nitty gritty details -- postgresql arrays are essentially a big stack of datums (technically, {length, datum} with length doubling as the null signal) and a vector of dimensions of length zero to six. 4, PostgreSQL 9. When converting a number to binary, the number of bytes matches the precision. This function returns a row of the result set as a numeric array. Server lo_creat lo_create lo_export lo_import lo_unlink Client lo_close lo_creat lo_create lo_export lo_import lo_lseek lo_open lo_read lo_tell lo_unlink lo_write. Each element of this array corresponds to one row of the query result and, like get_row, can be an object, an associative array, or a numbered array. Return the index of the first occurrence of a value in an array. Generally, Class. ARRAY type may not be supported on all PostgreSQL DBAPIs; it is currently known to work on psycopg2 only. size¶ This is an optional argument. The FIRST_VALUE() function is applied to the whole result set and picked the value in the product_name column of the first row. To read a Postgres array value into a Go slice, use: With the first query, you’d have to escape each value and form the. And there are two ways in your situation. Upgrading Postgres. 3, “MySQL Handling of GROUP BY”. To search an array for a value, you can use a for loop within the if statement. array_agg is a aggregate function like sum or count. Every table in PostgreSQL has a type associated with it, which is the column definition for that table. Definition and Usage. The value can either be a string, if the method does not take any arguments, or an array, where the first element is the name of the method, and consecutive elements are arguments to that method. Better customer experiences start with a unified platform. In this post, I am sharing a demonstration to select a distinct value for each column of a table in PostgreSQL. I've heard that PG 12 improves the options around stats on distinct values, but we're on 11. In such a way you can create two-dimensional or three-dimensional array. Most developers do this by running a query to get much of the raw data, looping over the data and pushing it into a set, appending each new value to the appropriate key. The STRING_AGG() function accepts two arguments and an optional ORDER BY clause. What I want to return is the first and last date, with the corresponding (or associated) amount. WARNING: Back up your data before doing this incase you screw up like I did!. The first is regpexp_split_to_table and then next popular is using the unnest function in combination with string_to_array. public static upsert (values: Object , options: Object ): Promise < boolean > source. Get First Element Of An Array With Sequential Numeric Indexes It's fairly easy and straightforward to get the first element of a sequential array in PHP. These properties can be a single function that returns the transformed value (function(data, headersGetter, status)) or an array of such transformation functions, which allows you to push or unshift a new transformation function into the transformation chain. PostgreSQL & PostGIS cheatsheet (a work in progress) - README. Note: The first character is denoted by a value of 0 (not 1): A value of 0 means that the entire string is searched. Display All Array Values/Elements In One Msgbox May 2nd, 2008, 23:37. Sometimes. Even if the parameter is logged as a String, on the database site, the column type is inet and the value is stored in a parsed binary format. As such, the trick is on supplying a cs-list of elements which can be done by using a cell array and index it with {}. Without an order by clause, this will give you the first of a randomly ordered list of A. Address) and with ->> in it we get actual field value (e. If you want to find the position number of the last occurrence of a specific value in a column (a single range), you can use an array formula with a combination of the MAX function, IF function, ROW function and INDEX Function. This program creates two string arrays. Let's talk about making the JSON data easier to use. Definition and Usage. PostgreSQL 9. On this page I explain how JavaScript objects are also associative arrays (hashes). The function QUOTE_NULLABLE, coerces the given value to text and then quote it as a literal; or, if the argument is null, returns NULL. If you want all of them you need to just get the whole JSON arrays and then wrap this in an outer query where you do jsonb_array_elements() again. Unlike a C-style array, it doesn't decay to T * automatically. Here is an example. Description. If match_type is 0, MATCH finds the first value that is exactly equal to value_to_lookup. How to Get the First Row per Group in PostgreSQL Let's say we have an events table that belongs to a user_id , and we want to see the first event for each user for that day. 11 Oct 2017 Ben Nuttall (Community Moderator) Feed. The postgresql. Retrieve the terms in a given taxonomy or list of taxonomies. Using IN (12,84,54) should work anywhere. array_insert(array, pos, value) : Returns an array with the given value added at the given position. array^myArr1 = gcnew array(5); // Sets the element at index 3. @cpjolicoeur I found the solution below very nice for me. This method returns the index of the first element of the specified dimension in the array. In other words, this may be a bug in the PHP postgres library. Return value. (The worksheet asks about changing this, but you may hard code this value while writing the program. 3, “MySQL Handling of GROUP BY”. There are a few ways to do this. Each element of the array is a string naming a column. What you gain from using indexing rather than testing for null for each value may be lost filling the array. With -> we get jsonb object (e. Finding Maximum/Minimum Value in an Array by kirupa | 1 July 2005. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 The operating system installed on the system containing a 32-bit value that is improperly used as an array PostgreSQL 8. Array permits widening conversions to occur during a get or set operation, but throws an IllegalArgumentException if a narrowing conversion would occur. PostgreSQL: Declaring Variables This PostgreSQL tutorial explains how to declare variables in PostgreSQL with syntax and examples. 4 Example Let's look at some PostgreSQL substring function examples and explore how to use the substring function in PostgreSQL. An important first step is educating an organization on the benefits and value that design thinking will deliver and encouraging people throughout the organization to take part. If the data type is not built in, and there is a cast from the type to json, the cast function will be used to perform the conversion. Converting JSON to PostgreSQL values, simply. I'm storing a lot of json from some websites on PostgreSQL 9. nil is a possible value of any data type in Clojure. The select method will always return an array of results. Once you can locate a member of the array, you can display its value using cout. Now is the time to do something in the middle of these topics (more complex than uuid, but easier than hstore) - we want to store list of simple values under one attribute. Multidimensional arrays are supported; the array type can be a base, enum, or composite type. PHP: Multidimensional Arrays Array does not have to be a simple list of keys and values; each array element can contain another array as a value, which in turn can hold other arrays as well. e In PostgreSQL/PPAS offset value can go from 00000000 to FF000000 and if we convert that in decimal, it gives maximum 4278190080 bytes (4080MB) Based on above formula, following is plpgsql function which can be use to get the difference:. std::array is a container that encapsulates fixed size arrays. Java, SQL and jOOQ. placeholders in the original prepared query string. js is a "batteries included" SQL query builder for Postgres, MSSQL, MySQL, MariaDB, SQLite3, Oracle, and Amazon Redshift designed to be flexible, portable, and fun to use. Position of the first character in the string to be considered in the search. You can use array formulas to find the last non-blank cell in a column or row. The first statement is just a here The fetchrow_array method will return the values of the next row in the. PostgreSQL allows a column to be defined as a multi-dimensional array!. 3, PostgreSQL 9. Return the First and Last Values in a Range October 9, 2013 by Mynda Treacy 12 Comments I've been asked many times how to find either the cell reference of the first or last value in a range, or even return the values from those cells, and there are many ways to do it. The LAST_VALUE function returns the value of the expression with respect to the last row in the frame. Learn more about Teams. Then, for each row in table T1 that does not satisfy the join condition with any row in table T2, a joined row is added with null values in columns of T2. PostgreSQL 9. find a what to get the element of the first key. All versions 9. One thing to point out is that, in C# the count of an array is not in its type. The following example uses the LAST_VALUE() function to return all products together with the most expensive product per product group:. GetLowerBound(0) returns the starting index of the first dimension of the array, and GetLowerBound(Rank - 1) returns the starting index of the last dimension of the array. Materials and Techniques for Today’s Artist By Kenneth Leslie Finally back in print for a new generation of artists, Ken Leslie’s Oil Pastel is the definitive instructional resource on this wonderfully rich and versatile medium. I have to find the first element of array i. Said exhibitor Nittoku America, Inc. The problem is this method is too slow. If you pass more than one argument then the number of elements will be equal to the number of data values specified. PostgreSQL, unlike SQL Server, can use an Anti Join method to process a query that combines LEFT JOIN with IS NULL predicate on the join field from the right table. This tutorial will get you started with PostgreSQL with PHP. This method changes the length of the array. The dup method creates a shallow copy of an object. In this type of array formula, the result, while calculated from arrays, is a single value. Let's talk about making the JSON data easier to use. The elements of an array are distinguished by their indices. You can use array formulas to find the last non-blank cell in a column or row. Now when we look in position 4 and 5 of the bloom filter (bit array), we can see that the values are set to 1. Here the records we will get from the table will be used to populate the dropdown list box. I want to determine where the first value in (in other words <>0) occurs in which of the 20 columns and also the occurrence of the first 0 after the last most value. Its only supported with PostgreSQL. 3, PostgreSQL 9. values () The values() method returns a new Array Iterator object that contains the values for each index in the array. In this case, the second element of the second array (201) is the greatest. In order to connect to PostgreSQL database from Java, first step is to register the driver with DriverManager. array^myArr1 = gcnew array(5); // Sets the element at index 3. By default node-postgres creates a map from the name to value of each column, giving you a json-like object back for each row. 2, PostgreSQL 9. FIRST_VALUE and LAST_VALUE Window Functions. This value should be 1-based: 1 is the first row, 2 is the second row, and so on. Support PostgreSQL 11, 12 Return function (PostgreSQL 11) columns in PgDatabaseMetaData#getFunctionColumns Return information on create replication slot, now the snapshot_name is exported to allow a consistent snapshot in some uses cases. However, the current implementation ignores any supplied array size. Address) and with ->> in it we get actual field value (e. Unnest with jsonb_array_elements(). Support SCRAM-SHA-256 for PostgreSQL 10 in the JDBC 4. conf, the value of random_page_cost. PostgreSQL is a powerful, open source object-relational database system. free() before leaving the function. PostgreSQL - Data Type - In this chapter, we will discuss about the data types used in PostgreSQL. The one-page guide to PostgreSQL JSON: usage, examples, links, snippets, and more. This includes both code snippets embedded in the card text and code that is included as a file attachment. I have to changed my query to. Parameter binding provides protection against SQL injection. Every team needs a motto, a motivating. CWIEME Americas did not disappoint in this regard. You don't need to json_agg your objects, pgclimb. WARNING: Back up your data before doing this incase you screw up like I did!. The following code example demonstrates how to set and get a specific value in a one-dimensional or multidimensional array. For an array, pointer to array, or slice value a, the index iteration values are produced in increasing order, starting at element index 0. First add this Util class. The Array class provides static methods to dynamically create and access Java arrays. Otherwise the array will contain one item for each row returned from the query. pg_fetch_array() returns an array that corresponds to the fetched row (record). The new greatest sum is the greater of the old greatest sum ( agg_state[1] ) and the new current sum. to fire the $. For a workaround, see the special type at Using ENUM with ARRAY. You can get that visibility set up in minutes by signing up for a free Datadog account if you're looking to try out this change to your Postgres queries. Additionally, the postgresql. vscode-postgres. ST_Neighborhood — Returns a 2-D double precision array of the non-NODATA values around a given band's pixel specified by either a columnX and rowY or a geometric point expressed in the same spatial reference coordinate system as the raster. Bug-fixes: Code completion box displayed off the bottom of the screen and partially obscured. We used the YEAR() function to extract year from the payment date. For an array, pointer to array, or slice value a, the index iteration values are produced in increasing order, starting at element index 0. PostgreSQL String Functions − Complete list of PostgreSQL functions required to manipulate strings. To get the first non-blank value (text or number) in a in a one-column range you can use an array formula based on the INDEX, MATCH, and ISBLANK functions. I don't think I drank enough coffee today, but stuck on this for some reason. The elements of an array are distinguished by their indices. msort (a) Return a copy of an array sorted along the first axis. This article is for PostgreSQL beginner who is looking for the list of tables and databases in PostgreSQL. serial: Auto-populated integer number. The elements of an array are distinguished by their indices. For an array, pointer to array, or slice value a, the index iteration values are produced in increasing order, starting at element index 0. PostgreSQL comes with plenty of features, one of them will be of great help here to get a better grasp at what’s happening with window functions. So, even though we created the table with double brackets [][], PostgreSQL would have allowed us to insert a one-dimensional array as well. There is no group_concat function in PostgreSQL, but starting with version 8. In this article, we're going to take a look at the array datatype. , a select element with the multiple attribute set),. PostgreSQL - Array Function - PostgreSQL ARRAY_AGG function is used to concatenate the input values including null into an array. What can you do with PostgreSQL and JSON? PostgreSQL 9. To write an array value as a literal constant, enclose the element values within curly braces and separate them by commas. If you create a count_elements function to receive int[] instead text[], you won't need to cast the parameter before array_agg-it. What’s more, the database keeps no metadata for this type. To understand the MAX function, consider the table COMPANY having records as follows −. First method checks is a given object is present in the list (and defined as indexOf(elem) >= 0 ). The default value of numeric array elements are set to zero, and reference elements are set to null. There are a lot of ways in which you can get the Postgres server to run pre-defined code. Dim arr(5) As Integer arr(0) = 1 arr(1) = 3 arr(2) = 5 arr(3) = 7 arr(4) = 8 arr(5) = 5 Dim index1 As Integer = Array. If the index arrays do not have the same shape, there is an attempt to broadcast them to the same shape. Returns the value of the element at the given index. That might be ok. Finally, we return a new point value with the new current and greatest sums. …or, maybe, do cross the streams. , what kind of dat. you use PL/PGSQL and pass IN-values and array for array_position from single parameter. There are at least two possible ways this could be done. set-value-at(Array a, integer index, Element new-value). 0 in a Nutshell. In this sql cheatsheet we will provide some common query questions asked and SQL solutions to these questions. In other words, this may be a bug in the PHP postgres library. Data Types, Arrays and Strings. Podcast Episode #126: We chat GitHub Actions, fake boyfriends apps, and the dangers of legacy code. SQL standard defines three types of OUTER JOINs: LEFT, RIGHT, and FULL and PostgreSQL supports all of these. Note: This method will not change the original array. This object must be freed by plan. PostgreSQL ORDER BY on NULL values in descending order If we want to get the emp_first_name, designame ,commission and deptno by a sort in descending order on commission column from the employee table for that employee who belongs to the deptno 25, the following SQL can be used. 4: How to Convert JSON ARRAY Elements into String ARRAY PostgreSQL 9. There are two ways to define a custom Hibernate Type: the UserType interface Java and SQL descriptors The latter option is preferred since it allows you to better split the Java-to-JDBC and the JDBC-to-SQL type handling. The first element is always the number of affected rows, while the second element is the actual affected rows (only supported in postgres with options. In this case, these are values of type int. valueOf() will return the same as Array. Notice that the table doesn’t indicate explicitly that scores is a multidimensional array. Typically, these are the values of the where clause constraints. The postgresql. Don’t Miss out on Awesome SQL Power with FIRST_VALUE(), LAST_VALUE(), LEAD(), and LAG() Posted on November 7, 2014 November 1, 2014 by lukaseder If you’re using a commercial database or PostgreSQL / Firebird / CUBRID, you will be able to take advantage of the full power of window functions. This gives us robustness and scalability - your Catalyst-based app also inherits those. See section 5K of the book. The valueOf() method returns the array. js is a "batteries included" SQL query builder for Postgres, MSSQL, MySQL, MariaDB, SQLite3, Oracle, and Amazon Redshift designed to be flexible, portable, and fun to use. It may not be your next JSON database, but PostgreSQL could well be the next database you use to work with relational and JSON data side by side. Each element of this array corresponds to one row of the query result and, like get_row, can be an object, an associative array, or a numbered array. Then, for each row in table T1 that does not satisfy the join condition with any row in table T2, a joined row is added with null values in columns of T2. array_agg is a aggregate function like sum or count. I would like to get the max value within a slice of a Json object (typicaly [1,2,3,5,6,7,9,10]) which is contained in a field named Data of the table raw. Second, if the delimiter string is NULL, the function splits the input into individual characters, rather than returning NULL as before. The order is indicated by the position or index. It may not be your next JSON database, but PostgreSQL could well be the next database you use to work with relational and JSON data side by side. e In PostgreSQL/PPAS offset value can go from 00000000 to FF000000 and if we convert that in decimal, it gives maximum 4278190080 bytes (4080MB) Based on above formula, following is plpgsql function which can be use to get the difference:. Need to select a JSON array element dynamically from a postgresql table; Notes (outdated since pg 9. The cell range C9:C13 provides the array, the MATCH function provides the cell address, and the final argument (1) specifies that the value comes from the first column in the array. Posts about PostgreSQL 11 written by lukaseder. Most modern languages start to number arrays with index 0; PostgreSQL, by contrast, starts to count them with 1. The typename parameter is an array where each element is a string that corresponds to the PostgreSQL type name for each bind parameter. If the data type is not built in, and there is a cast from the type to json , the cast function will be used to perform the conversion. If a value is passed, coerce the given value to text and then quotes it as a literal. table_name. Introduction. Simple Database access using Perl DBI and SQL. The first position or index starts at 0. If you know the item contains only a single value, access the first element in the array, which is at index 0. The table table_name must at least have as many columns as assoc_array has elements. If you do not need or do not want this behavior you can pass rowMode: 'array' to a query object. This is IMPORTANT becuase this is a basic and example code, but if you are planning to run it seriously you *should* respect the types. But sometimes we require the information of tuple corresponding to maximum value of other tuple indexes. Then, for each row in table T1 that does not satisfy the join condition with any row in table T2, a joined row is added with null values in columns of T2. Maven dependency. Whenever you need to split a text into multiple records breaking by some delimeter, there are two common options that PostgreSQL provides. For numeric arguments, the variance and standard deviation functions return a DOUBLE value. NET Data Provider for PostgreSQL, it allows programs written in C#, Visual Basic, F# to access the PostgreSQL database server. I know it's an array so it might work differently than usual, e. Instead of referring to the first revenue variable as Rev1, you can refer to it by using the array name and an index into the array, such as REVENUE[I] (assuming that I has a value of 1). We need to find the element that occurs more than once and whose index of first occurrence is smallest. Element number 1 is the first element of a PgSqlArray. Using PostgreSQL Arrays with Golang. PostgreSQL String Functions − Complete list of PostgreSQL functions required to manipulate strings in PostgreSQL. When there is a matching color, MATCH returns the position first TRUE found. In array_to_string, if the null-string parameter is omitted or NULL, any null elements in the array are simply skipped and not represented in the output string. array^myArr1 = gcnew array(5); // Sets the element at index 3. Medicare Supplement Plan These terms will most likely not mean much but in the event that you will be talking which has a savvy medical health insurance agent, they have a tendency to overwhelm you with words that you can not also appreciate while to the way they are appearing used inside insurance home business. The decoration consists of curly braces ({ and }) around the array value plus delimiter characters between adjacent items. Converts an ordered list of pairs {Index, Value} to a corresponding extendible array. This method returns the index of the first element of the specified dimension in the array. I have a table that has got Dates and the Amount. The fetchone() method returns the first row result or None and the fetchall() method returns a list of each row in the table or an empty list [] if there are no rows. This sample application will use Postgres as the backend database system, Okta for user authentication, and Heroku for quick deployment to a scalable platform. PostgreSQL ARRAY Functions − The PostgreSQL ARRAY aggregate function puts input values, including nulls, concatenated into an array. If you array-enter that formula in a 5 row by 4 column range, the intersection of that range's third row and first column contains the regression's R-squared value. So your BTree would look something like that So your BTree would look something like that Let’s say we would like to have all the crocodiles who ever had their first and second teeth healed. In this article, we're going to take a look at the array datatype. Ford will have a vast array of customized Rangers and a Transit van riding on tracks for the 2019 SEMA Show. It's looks like the Event Sourcing pattern that you previously implemented in your application, but now it's available out of the box from the PostgreSQL database. You can also use Postgres functions to define triggers. At Worldsensing we have used JSON on PostgreSQL a lot in some of our micro-services. The following statement uses the FIRST_VALUE() to return the lowest price for every product group. Most modern languages start to number arrays with index 0; PostgreSQL, by contrast, starts to count them with 1. 4, you can use the array_agg() built-in. Since values are stored in column-major order, paired values need to be on the same column. It works by generating abbreviated keys for values that are representative of them for purposes of sorting, but which fit nicely into the pointer-sized value (called a “datum”) in memory that Postgres uses for sorting. What you gain from using indexing rather than testing for null for each value may be lost filling the array. So, we need to ensure it renders it as TEXT. To understand what exactly is going on here, we first need to understand how PostgreSQL compares arrays: Array comparisons compare the array contents element-by-element, using the default B-tree comparison function for the element data type. The type of the array can be an inbuilt type, a user-defined type or an enumerated type. to_tsvector() is a given PSQL function and is what turns our array into a tsvector and allows for search later on. I've heard that PG 12 improves the options around stats on distinct values, but we're on 11. As an additional bonus, this formula is not an array formula, and not volatile. An attribute is added to each of these elements, which indicates whether this element is a key (this is needed for «exists» strategies, which distinguish between keys and values). In the same way, the 1st member of the array can be located with distance. The first is regpexp_split_to_table and then next popular is using the unnest function in combination with string_to_array. You would need to transpose this result array before your code takes the first index a column name and the second index a row index. 3, ANY(ARRAY[]) is performing properly again. js 5 This is the output. For example: To extract a list of unique values in Excel, use one of the following formulas. The corresponding non-zero values can be. Using these you can associate a key string with a value string, which can be very useful sometimes. 2) Using PostgreSQL LAST_VALUE() over a partition example. We access array elements using the subscript within square brackets []. protot ype. 2, PostgreSQL 9. We can’t just use the subtraction operator, because Postgres will try to convert the RHS value into JSONB first, and fail. The most common use of these functions is to check only for equality. Can contain less. I have to changed my query to. Get first value from javascript Map. Full-text search feature of PostgreSQL offers a rich array of functions. In Zend_Db_Select, you can use the order() method to specify a column or an array of columns by which to sort. It works by generating abbreviated keys for values that are representative of them for purposes of sorting, but which fit nicely into the pointer-sized value (called a “datum”) in memory that Postgres uses for sorting. Here is an example:. The PostgreSQL LEFT() function returns the first n characters in a string. The one-page guide to PostgreSQL JSON: usage, examples, links, snippets, and more. It's possible to specify the size of an array when we create the column, but this isn't actually enforced. If I use string_to_array() function, I will have an array of three strings as ('A','simple','example'). The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: