Android Http Request Json

redirect(), res. This way only one instance of volley. Many REST web services return results that are formatted as JSON text or. js objective-c open source performance powermock programming rest Ruby scala spring testing tips tools tutorial web windows windows 8 windows phone windows phone 7 windows. This is typically through REST APIs and an HTTP client in your app. The Android HTTP library is based on HttpUrlConnection. By David Walsh on April 4, 2011. When the scenario requires data to be stored in a centralized manner, then this architecture should be used. In this tutorial, we are going to use external library Volley for sending HTTP request. Because it is a REST API, it is completely stateless. In this “Volley android tutorial,” we are setting volley “Simple Request” and doing JSON parsing. Google made this protocol open source and now. Download courses using your iOS or Android LinkedIn. By the use of this library, it is easy to request web services of REST with GET, POST, PUT and much more. See this guide to understand how OkHttp works. y, checkout the 1. JSON stands for JavaScript Object Notation, and it is based on a subset of JavaScript. Android From Scratch: Using REST APIs Android SDK Android REST API HTTP JSON Mobile you don't have to request for it during runtime on devices running API. Net based web service from an Android phone, and passing it simple contact information data - Name, Email, and Address. This article will show you examples about how to use them. If you need to send a POST request with JSON data using Volley, you can do so with a JsonObjectRequest, and if you need to send or receive a JSON array in your POST request, you can use a JsonArrayRequest. Android Programming : Running Volley Android App. Consuming a JSON REST API in Android This week's blog post was requested by one of our readers, Jasmine. Fetch,show,set multiple MySQL database data rows inside custom ListView. Android AsyncTask and HttpUrlConnection example. Using JSON and COBOL for RESTful Services on the Web. Python HTTP Client, Python HTTP Request, Python HTTP GET, Python http post, python http put, python http client example, python http. Status of This Memo. Here's some quick code that I wrote to do this. In frequent cases, you need to collect information from user in your android application and store it in the database for future use. Before making network operation check if notwork connectivity. Android: HTTP GET JSON August 30th, 2012 In this brief tutorial I will discuss how to retrieve a JSON object using HTTP GET that will work on Android 2, 3, 4, and follows Android’s threading best practices. js objective-c open source performance powermock programming rest Ruby scala spring testing tips tools tutorial web windows windows 8 windows phone windows phone 7 windows. Header[], org. A Multipart pattern can be defined as matching ANY request multiparts or ALL. If you click "Upload", JSON will be stored on the server and you can download generated file by clicking "Download" button or access it via ajax-request by URL that will be copied to clipboard after clicking "Copy URL" button. There are many times when you need to send http get or post request. All Forums. 1 Jelly Bean; Android Development Tools (ADT) Plugin for Eclipse (ADT version 20. android send unicode data to server with post request. In this i also explain how we can handle incoming JSON data on server. As we are Send and Recieve the JSON by making HTTP calls, we need to add INTERNET permission in our AndroidManifest. Volley supersedes Java's java. Deems a match if a multipart value is valid and matches any or all the multipart pattern matchers supplied. In computing, JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) (/ ˈ dʒ eɪ s ən / "Jason", / ˈ dʒ eɪ s ɒ n /) is an open-standard file format that uses human-readable text to transmit data objects consisting of attribute–value pairs and array data types (or any other serializable value). In frequent cases, you will be given an api or url with information encoded in json format and parse the information from your application. AndroidでHTTP通信するときの手段についてまとめておきます。 サーバー側の流行やプログラミングのパラダイム変化によって今後もどんどん新しい、便利なライブラリが出てくるでしょう。 Apache系(Apache HttpClient,DefaultHttpClient. Make an interface:. Values of those keys were value and hashincludetechnology. Example 1 of Simple JSON Parsing In Android Studio: Below is the example of JSON parsing in Android, In this example we parse the data from JSON and then display it in the UI. JSONObject; import android. For POST JSON data write the following code. It is minimal, textual, and a subset of JavaScript. In this REST Assured tutorial, you will learn how to make HTTP Post request and validate the Response. Then I realized there should be some general and single structure which can handle such things like Async call, HttpGet and HttpPost and parsing stuff. "Hi all, Need some urgent help! Trying to send a JSON message in the binary form, over HTTP to a web service hosted on amazon cloud. Select the appropriate account, and choose Editor > Service Accounts > Service Account Token Creator. Besides use XMLHttpRequest to implement http get, post request in ajax web application, jQuery also provide some methods which wrap XMLHttpRequest to achieve http get, post ajax request also. Java RESTful Web Services With JSON Example Source Code ProductsResource. In addition to normal URL parameter validation, any URL parameters that have a corresponding value in provided JSON request bodies must match if they are both specified. Get practice reading API documentation and learn how to request data from an API using a web browser. It is minimal, textual, and a subset of JavaScript. Go to the Google Cloud Platform Console: Go to Google Cloud Platform Console. user, password – login and password for basic HTTP auth (if required). In previous post, we have seen android JSON parsing tutorial which was very simple. A Multipart pattern can be defined as matching ANY request multiparts or ALL. HTTP Post is used in Java to request that a specific web server receive and store data submitted within a request form. A lot of people speak about using JSON for android, and others people about sending an array of array of array of string by using something like this :. HTTP Interception is a major feature of @angular/common/http. Android tutorial about parsing the json using volley networking library. In this article i’ll be demonstrating about making simple HTTP Requests in android. This API sppports Xamarin IOS and Android development. Volley is a HTTP library developed by Google and was first introduced during Google I/O 2013. JSON Http Request Previous Next A common use of JSON is to read data from a web server, and display the data in a web page. JSON is a popular textual data format that's used for exchanging data in modern web and mobile applications. Due to the specifics of Android threading, we cannot run network tasks on the same thread as the. redirect(), res. When you are not using one of the ArcGIS SDKs you can implement app login with any platform of your choosing as long as you can generate HTTPS POST requests and receive JSON responses. PUT: Used for replacing resources or collections. A JsonObjectRequest enables you to send an HTTP request for JSON objects. if our JSON key was quotaRemaining. send(), or res. You can derive from HttpClient to create the specialized clients for the certain Websites or the standards. We have a suite of tools and SDKs to bring Twitter content and features to your website, iOS and Android apps. This example will tell you how to use org. On November 14th of 2017, Firefox 57 was released, and JSONView stopped working. After fetching the data. This library makes downloading JSON or XML data from a web API fairly straightforward. Notice: We're retiring Works with Nest. Python HTTP package, urllib, and JSON So we are going to import the urllib. By continuing to browse this site, you agree to this use. To build any dynamic application web service is must and should. Yes, JSON Generator can JSONP:) Supported HTTP methods are: GET, POST, PUT, OPTIONS. json file into the app directory in your project. It is extremely. val() is a jQuery function that tries to find a hidden input with an ID _REQUESTDIGEST from a web page. To connect to MySQL database from Android device/emulator I am sending an HTTP request to a Servlet from the application which will be process via JSON. BlockedNumbers; Browser; CalendarContract; CalendarContract. java source code is on Google Code :. BTCUSD is the default symbol Authentication is done using an API key and a secret. Check network connectivity. Since I had the problem that I have not that much knowledge about Java/Android/JSON it …. The payload in this example is a user information containing id, first_name and a last_name. Make an interface:. Post request for registering user data on server by HttpUrlConnection. Android provides support to parse the JSON object and array. Required Permissions. シリアル化した JSON オブジェクトをウェブのエンドポイントへ送るのはデータを HTTP や HTTPS を使って取得する一般的な方法で、これは WinJS の世界 (HTML5 / JavaScript の Windows ストアアプリを書く場合) では非常に簡単ではありますが、. The value for one of fields in the request body was invalid. Second is JSON Array which is. I'm using Ruby on Rails on the server and needed to post JSON to it from Android. After fetching the data. Usually we use REST FULL Services for that. java source code is on Google Code :. Header[], org. Doing HTTP efficiently makes your stuff load faster and saves bandwidth. volley:volley:1. We encoded our PHP array into a JSON string by using the function json_encode. The program establishes best practices and common requirements, backed by rigorous testing so you can confidently deploy Android in your enterprise. In this Android tutorial, we will see how to make a simple Http GET request to Servlet using HttpURLConnection and display the response in TextView. You can do this in Java by using the JSON package in Android that has already provisions for extracting JSON data and converting it not only to String, but to every basic Java type. Android: HTTP GET JSON August 30th, 2012 In this brief tutorial I will discuss how to retrieve a JSON object using HTTP GET that will work on Android 2, 3, 4, and follows Android's threading best practices. You are looking at the documentation for 2. - Request: A Base Class which contains Network related information like HTTP Methods. Since I've only just started learning Android development, I decided to keep things simple. An example of the json data I'm sending is. For POST JSON data write the following code. Many REST web services return results that are formatted as JSON text or. JSON Web Token (JWT) is a compact token format intended for space constrained environments such as HTTP Authorization headers and URI query parameters. gson library, Send JSON payload in the body of HTTP Post request, Validate the Response To be…. This tutorial will cover how to fetch and parse JSON from a remote server on Android. Field Type Required Description Validation; name: string: True: A unique plugin name in Java package format. Insert and Retrieve Image from SQLite Database in Android Here we learn how to retrieve json using retrofit get request and using SQLite DB, perform insert and retrieve operation for images in android. After fetching the data. In this, we have employee name and salary stored in JSON format. Volley is a HTTP library developed by Google and was first introduced during Google I/O 2013. Set and get data via PHP Web Service between Android and PHP. json package ). Parse JSON Use JSONObject And Gson Overview. JSON (Javascript Object Notation) is a programming language. All of this probably sounds a bit abstract, so I'm going to go a bit weird for a few moments and describe what a HTTP request and response might look like for this example. After adding the package name and SHA1 and selecting Register, Click Download google-services. OneSignal is a Push Notification service for Web Push, iOS, Android, Chrome, Unity 3D, Amazon, Windows Phone, Phonegap, Marmalade, Corona, & more. Cookies are important to the proper functioning of a site. The working urlencoded request will, correctly, give me json formatted data back. Next to demonstrate the nesting JSON Objects, another JSON object headers and added some information about the device test will be tested from including device model, device version and language in ISO3. In our last tutorial we discussed about how to send a network request using Volley Library, while Volley is a widely used network library for basic HTTP operations there is one more library which is quite popular among Android developers- Retrofit. Header[], org. JSON Server. It is quite popular among Android developers reason being that it moves all the complicated stuff under the hood and makes sending a network request ridiculously easy. What's wrong with this HTTP POST request? Can anyone please explain what could be wrong about this HTTP POST request? The JSON seems valid. String Request – Through class StringRequest. Over View: I am giving tutorial on consuming web based services using JSON. Request JSON. In this Spring MVC tutorial, you are going to learn how to use the @PostMapping annotation to make your RESTful Web Service Endpoint be able to handle HTTP Post request and read its JSON or XML body payload. JSONObject; import android. For that we will create an HttpUrlConnection to connect to. Volley is a great choice as it runs network operations asynchronously by default, and can handle request queuing and cancellation simply and effectively. JSON:API documents are defined in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON). HTTP Interception is a major feature of @angular/common/http. BlockedNumbers; Browser; CalendarContract; CalendarContract. Create Dynamic ListView using JSON Parsing,PHP MySQL db data coming from server. This chapter explains how to parse the JSON file and extract necessary information from it. Performs an HTTP request, and returns a response object. JSON in Java [package org. It is minimal, textual, and a subset of JavaScript. It provides efficient network management. Join the 200,000 developers using Yahoo tools to build their app businesses. [SOLVED] Exception: Cannot convert string type to JSON object So my guess is Android. As we are Send and Recieve the JSON by making HTTP calls, we need to add INTERNET permission in our AndroidManifest. If you click "Upload", JSON will be stored on the server and you can download generated file by clicking "Download" button or access it via ajax-request by URL that will be copied to clipboard after clicking "Copy URL" button. The best way for me to learn is by reading, and actually doing it. Java HTTP GET Request. But if you've been. The Android platform includes the json. This tutorial assumes that you've already gone through our Node. Request JSON. シリアル化した JSON オブジェクトをウェブのエンドポイントへ送るのはデータを HTTP や HTTPS を使って取得する一般的な方法で、これは WinJS の世界 (HTML5 / JavaScript の Windows ストアアプリを書く場合) では非常に簡単ではありますが、. In this article i'll be demonstrating about making simple HTTP Requests in android. This article will show you examples about how to use them. A JsonObjectRequest enables you to send an HTTP request for JSON objects. You can create JSON representations in the Google APIs Explorer using an interactive tool. How JSON Web Tokens Work. OneSignal is a Push Notification service for Web Push, iOS, Android, Chrome, Unity 3D, Amazon, Windows Phone, Phonegap, Marmalade, Corona, & more. This is my snippet: return. I won't go too much into detail, since the code is pretty much self-explaining and already has a lot of comments describing the program flow. Prefer using open source libraries like Gson or https:. – Request: A Base Class which contains Network related information like HTTP Methods. Hello Readers, The new Android platforms use a class called HttpUrlConnection to work with external service calls, This post is on a method which can send a JSON as body and receive a JSON as response you can use this method whenever you need to post a JSON to a rest location and get a json from a rest location. The Promise interface in jQuery 1. Attendees; CalendarContract. Image Transfer Request – Through class ImageRequest. We use android. You can do this in Java by using the JSON package in Android that has already provisions for extracting JSON data and converting it not only to String, but to every basic Java type. Convert the response into a custom Dart object. JSON is also used for storing unstructured data in log files or NoSQL databases such as Microsoft Azure Cosmos DB. We have previously written about parsing JSON in Android without using any libraries in this post. To use the mentioned Android Emulator features make sure you are running at least Android Emulator v29. Next to demonstrate the nesting JSON Objects, another JSON object headers and added some information about the device test will be tested from including device model, device version and language in ISO3. An example of the json data I'm sending is. JSON stands for JavaScript Object Notation. ConnectIQ can only make direct web calls using makeJsonRequest, which can only receive from services that provide JSON. I had left my main activity name as MainActivity. In JSON API, both clients and servers send JSON API data in request documents with the following header without specifying media type parameters:. java is the only Java class where we need to code the following: a. Most commonly this is between client-side JavaScript running in a web browser, and a server-side script running on. To connect to MySQL database from Android device/emulator I am sending an HTTP request to a Servlet from the application which will be process via JSON. Example of performing a POST request using Google Volley for Android - volley-POST-example. By continuing to browse this site, you agree to this use. Get practice reading API documentation and learn how to request data from an API using a web browser. This API sppports Xamarin IOS and Android development. If both of these values were the same, i. Volley is an HTTP library developed by Google to ease networking tasks in Android Applications. In our last tutorial we discussed about how to send a network request using Volley Library, while Volley is a widely used network library for basic HTTP operations there is one more library which is quite popular among Android developers- Retrofit. Step 7 : POST data from JSON Android Client to WCF REST WebService POST JSON data from an Android Client to a WCF RESTful WebService The full Android. – StringRequest: HTTP Request where the response is parsed a String. This chapter explains how to parse the JSON file and extract necessary information from it. This library makes downloading JSON or XML data from a web API fairly straightforward. Official Google Maps Help Center where you can find tips and tutorials on using Google Maps and other answers to frequently asked questions. The JSON seems to be valid from the first glance. In this tutorial, you will learn how to populate a spinner with data remotely using a JSON file in your Android application. It can happen that an Android App has to upload some binary data to the server. The Flickr JSON is a little confusing, and it doesn’t provide a direct link to the thumbnail version of our photos, so we’ll have to use some trickery on our end to get to it, which we’ll cover in just a moment. This means that there will not be any whitespace in the output JSON structure. Android: HTTP GET JSON August 30th, 2012 In this brief tutorial I will discuss how to retrieve a JSON object using HTTP GET that will work on Android 2, 3, 4, and follows Android's threading best practices. The value for one of fields in the request body was invalid. You are looking at the documentation for 2. In this Android tutorial, I will walk you through to access a web service end point, parse JSON response and display it in an Android list view. The following code snippet show you how to send POST request with a JSON body using HttpClient. http and AndroidHttpClient as of Android 5. In this "Volley android tutorial," we are setting volley "Simple Request" and doing JSON parsing. Please note that open call, contrary to its name, does not open the connection. ObjGen uses a simple shorthand syntax to generate rich and complex JSON data. In this Android tutorial, we will see how to make a simple Http GET request to Servlet using Apache Http Client (DefaultHttpClient) and display the response in TextView. This site uses cookies for analytics, personalized content and ads. But if you've been. Attendees; CalendarContract. JSON is a popular textual data format that's used for exchanging data in modern web and mobile applications. org libraries which allow to work easily with JSON files. This RESTful service resouce uses the @Produces({ MediaType. Android provides support to parse the JSON object and array. Create new windows 10 project. json library. , “The application/json Media Type for JavaScript Object Notation (JSON),” July 2006. Created with <3 for front-end developers who need a quick back-end for prototyping and mocking. How JSON Web Tokens Work. All of the tutorials that I found didn't work. Fortunately Android Volley has made it pretty simple. This little tool hoped to solve the problem by formatting the JSON data so that it is easy to read and debug by human beings. You can derive from HttpClient to create the specialized clients for the certain Websites or the standards. Get a full fake REST API with zero coding in less than 30 seconds (seriously). You can use HttpURLConnection for sending get/post request in java. Technical documentation for Amazon Appstore, including developer guides and references for submitting apps and games, developing apps for devices, and ways to increase customer engagement and monetization. So, I started to build a room reservation app using an web service API built by my co-worker. JSON in Java [package org. This will automatically execute the request asynchronously and fire the onSuccess when the response returns a success code and onFailure if the response does not. Net Android aop automated testing aws azure C# clojure conference frameworks functional programming git http iOS iphone Java javascript jayview junit maven metro mobile node. Android Web login Using JSON Example This can be overcome by using the HttpClient and JSON in Android. Now a days, almost all the web APIs are REST based and it returns JSON response. This tutorial DOES NOT explain how to set up and android app or components of an android app; it only explains how to populate an Android spinner. It is an alternative to XML. But conversion from object to JSON cannot be done. Because it is a REST API, it is completely stateless. Retrofit is a type-safe REST client for Android, Java and Kotlin developed by Square. We use android. This tutorial demonstrates how to do Android JSON Parsing and display with RecyclerView or ListView. Using HTTP requests to get JSON objects in Android Since both Fitbit and Withings web API return JSON objects,I set out to learn how to request JSON objects from an Android app. "Hi all, Need some urgent help! Trying to send a JSON message in the binary form, over HTTP to a web service hosted on amazon cloud. Since request payloads have to be composed by yourself, it doesn't make much sense to extract data from there. This simple and easiest way to send data to server i am not using any extra library for this. OKHttp is an Android HTTP client library from Square that reduces the steps needed, and means you can spend more time on the. Therefore in this Android Volley Example I would show how to send a JSON object request. In this tutorial, we are going to learn how to parse JSON data from a URL and display it in ListView. Fortunately Android Volley has made it pretty simple. Add Volley Library in your android project. You can send any HTTP request, using the same HttpClient instance. Example of performing a POST request using Google Volley for Android - volley-POST-example. In this tutorial we will design our xml using a button and textview and we will try to parse a very simple (one object json) response. In our last tutorial we discussed about how to send a network request using Volley Library, while Volley is a widely used network library for basic HTTP operations there is one more library which is quite popular among Android developers- Retrofit. 1 Jelly Bean; Android Development Tools (ADT) Plugin for Eclipse (ADT version 20. Check network connectivity. This is a sample login application in Android that use MySQL database. These interactions are often made through RESTful APIs. I’m starting to grasp how the Android environment operates. We will use GSON, a JSON parsing library developed by Google, to quickly parse the JSON into Java objects with very minimal work required. Now see how to consume REST service in Windows 10 app using System. Demonstrates sending a RESTful JSON request, and receiving a JSON response. Now a days, almost all the web APIs are REST based and it returns JSON response. In our previous tutorial we have learn about requesting single runtime permission on application start, but now in this tutorial we would going to Request Multiple Runtime Permissions in our application. If both of these values were the same, i. This article will show you examples about how to use them. It seems processing XML is too heavy for mobile devices. In the last Java tutorial we saw about creating a RESTful web service in Java that produces a JSON response. json file into the app directory in your project. Como pueden notar realizar llamadas POST y GET con android es bastante fácil y simple, Hoy día ya hay varios frameworks que abstraen esta funcionalidad de tener que realizar el request y parsear el JSON. Requesting REST Webservice with JSON in C# Xamarin Android In Brief : Webservice is an integral part of Mobile application development. json下,主要有以下几个类: JSONObject:可以看作是一个json对象 JSONStringer:json文本构建类 JSONArray:可以看作是json的数组 JSONTokener:json解析类 JSONException:json中用. This example will create a bucket in Google Cloud Storage (which involves sending and receiving JSON). Another way of implementing a REST talk to a remote API using Java and JSON. This article and sample code will show you how to get your web service to return data in the JSON format. fail() callbacks on a single request, and even to assign these callbacks after the request may have completed. JSON is also used for storing unstructured data in log files or NoSQL databases such as Microsoft Azure Cosmos DB. The library provides a powerful framework for authenticating and interacting with APIs and sending network requests with OkHttp. Get practice reading API documentation and learn how to request data from an API using a web browser. Volley will use this class to make the json request for us. The Glassdoor API is a simple, lightweight REST API that responds to http requests with JSON (future support for XML is planned). Makes sense, instead, to fill them with data you take/populate from somewhere. Example of performing a POST request using Google Volley for Android - volley-POST-example. In JSON API, both clients and servers send JSON API data in request documents with the following header without specifying media type parameters:. What we’re going to do is display the thumbnails of the latest 16 photos, which will link to the medium-sized display of the image. Live JSON generator to interactively create, edit and generate JSON objects. Previous Next In this post, we will see how to send HTTP Get/Post in java. Although: You can remove all headers. In this article, will see how to fetch JSON data using Volley and display it to RecyclerView into our Android Project. This specification defines the use of a JSON Web Token (JWT) Bearer Token as a means for requesting an OAuth 2. The value for one of fields in the request body was invalid. You are using the provided example request object 2. It’s how we exchange data & media. There are two major methods for retrieving data from most web services, XML or JSON. In Last Post We have seen Android JSON Parsing Using okHttp Example with New Material Design Library in which you have learn How to Parse JSON using okHttp. 0, there was another library shipped with Android SDK, called Android Apache HTTP. JSON stands for JavaScript Object Notation. In this, we have employee name and salary stored in JSON format. The Pocket Authentication API uses a variant of OAuth 2. invalidParameter: The value for one of the URL parameters was invalid. java is the only Java class where we need to code the following: a. This chapter will teach you, in 4 easy. Measure, monetize, advertise and improve your apps with Yahoo tools. Android SDK 4. JSON Array Request - Through class JsonArrayRequest. At this time, I want to work on android development and trying to find out how to communicate android with my existing application. If we have an application that requires the use of a standard HTTP request, we better do it right. The Android platform includes the json. [image] Hitchhikers Guide to the Android Universe Dear Sparksters, and anyone interested in building your own Android application. com, while using your programming language of choice. Performs an HTTP request, and returns a response object. Apart from the language itself and its own classes, Kotlin also provides a good set of useful extensions for already existing Java classes. It shows your JSON side by side in a clear, editable tree-view and in formatted plain text. In this article i’ll be demonstrating about making simple HTTP Requests in android. JSON stands for JavaScript Object Notation, and it is based on a subset of JavaScript. json packages, it is relative simple to consume RESTful WCF services. This Android HTTP library supports HTTP and HTTPS protocol and it is the basic class to use when handling HTTP connection. In order to keep this post HTTP library agnostic, I didn’t include any HTTP calls in the example code below. Java HTTP GET Request for Login Page. validResponseCodes is a comma-separated string of single values or from:to ranges. android = "http: Android Google Maps With Nearyby Places. JAVA- Send HTTP Get/Post Request and Read JSON response. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: